The leather manufacturing process includes three steps. First is hide preparation that includes liming, deliming, removing hair, degreasing, bleaching and pickling. The second step is tanning, which involves stabilizing the raw hides proteins to prevent rotting. This also makes
sure that the tanned hide can be used for a variety of things, Unlike a raw hide that gets tough and inflexible when it is dry and putrefies when it is wet.
Now the hides or skins are loaded into the tanning liquor and immersed in the drum. While the drum rotates on its axis, it is left to soak. This allows the tanning liquor to penetrate slowly through the hide’s entire thickness. Once the hide is coated evenly, the pH of the tanning liquor increases slowly. This process is called basification and fixes the leather with the tanning liquor. The more fixed the liquor, the higher the hydrothermal stability and shrinkage resistance of the leather.
Crusting is the next step. This step makes leather thin and lubricate and includes colouring. Other steps are drying and softening in Crusting. Splitting, shaving, dyeing, and whitening could also be included. Some tanners also oil the leather’s surface to improve its water resistance,
although the oils can be washed out with repeated water exposure.